The Electric Power Transformer usage
The electric transformers are static electrical machines that allows modification of the voltage and the current values so they can take the appropiate one (value) to carry and distribute the electric energy.
The reason of the transformer usage is because it is cheaper when the electric current is carry out at high voltages. You have to remember that for one amount of power, the higher the voltage the lower the current on the conductor. Then the less the cross-section of the conductor that is needed. A conductor that has a small cross section is cheaper.
The cross-section area of the conductor that is needed on a transmission line is inversely proportional to the square of the voltage value that has been assigned to the electricity transportation. This explains the convinience of the use of high voltages in the transportation of the electric energy.
In the same way transformers are used to raise the voltage and allow the current transportation over long distances, the transformers are also used to reduce the voltage to an acceptable level for domestic and industrial usage.
The picture above shows the general procedure of energy distribution from its generation to the final delivery for domestic and industrial usage.
- Many industrial facilities (*) do not have its connection to a 120 / 240 supply voltage but to a 34.5 KV.
- 1 KV = 1000 V. For example 34.5 KV = 34500 volts.
- The voltages shown on the picture above may vary from one country to another.