# Welcome to Electronics Area

## Positive and Negative Charges

Positive and Negative Charges All bodies around us are made up of electrons, protons and neutrons. In many cases, the number of protons and electrons is not the same (the body is not electrically balanced)….

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## Coulomb’s Law

Coulomb’s Law The electrostatic force depends on the opposing electric charges and the distance that separates them. The value of this electrostatic force is given by Coulomb’s Law. where: F = electrostatic force that acts…

## Voltage, Current and Power Gain on an Amplifier

Voltage, Current and Power Gain on an Amplifier Voltage Gain (Δv) The voltage gain is obtained by dividing the output by the input voltage. Δv = Vout / Vin. For example: If…

## Decibel – Power, Voltage and Current gains

Decibel The decibel expresses a ratio of quantities and not a quantity by itself. it does not express an exact quantity. The decibel expresses how many times more or how many times less,…

## Norton’s Theorem

Norton’s Theorem The Norton’s Theorem is similar to the Thevenin’s Theorem. It can be seen that, the equivalent circuit is: A Voltage source (Thevenin voltage: Vth) in series with a resistor (Thevenin resistance: RTH) Thevenin…

## Thevenin’s theorem

The Thevenin’s theorem is used to convert a two terminal circuit, into a very simple circuit containing one voltage source in series with a single resistor

## Electric Current Definition

Electric Current Definition The electric current is a current of electrons that crosses a material. Some conductive materials have free electrons that easily pass from an atom to another. These free electrons,…

## Multimeter – VOM – Tester

Multimeter – VOM – Tester The Multimeter also knowned as Tester and VOM. VOM comes from Volts, Ohms, Milliampere, although there are multimeters capable of measuring many other magnitudes as capacitance, frequency, temperature,…

## Electric Conductors (wire – cables)

Electric Conductors: General characteristics The electric conductors are metal threads (copper or aluminum) that are used to conduct electric current. Electric conductors are used in: – Electric facilities (housing, industry, trade, etc.) – Car…

## Optocoupler (LED and phototransistor)

Optocoupler: LED and  phototransistor The Optocoupler is a device that consists of a LED (light-emitting diode) and a phototransistor. When the LED emits light, it illuminates the phototransistor causing a current to flow through it. These two elements are coupled in the…

## LED – Light-emitting diode

LED – Light-emitting diode Light-emitting diode (LED) is a special type of diode, that emits light when it is forward biased. There are LEDs of various colors. LED colors depend on the material…

## What is a Capacitor?

Capacitors are devices made of two metal plates separated by an insulator or dielectric. Charge, Voltage and Capacitance Relationship

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