## Operational Amplifiers Tutorials

### A Brief History of the Operational Amplifier

Op Amp stands for operational amplifier. The operational amplifier was developed in the early 1940s for use in analog computers. The first Op Amps used vacuum tubes, which were very large and very power hungry.

In 1967, Fairchild Semiconductor introduced the first operational amplifier in an integrated circuit package, reducing its size, power consumption, and price. This device is a high performance linear amplifier with a wide range of applications.

### Op Amp Open Loop Gain – Op Amp Open Loop Configuration

Op Amp Open Loop Gain – The open loop gain of the operational amplifier is given when there is no feedback path between the output and either input

### Window comparator using op amps

Window comparator using op amps A window comparator lets you know if a signal is within or outside a previously defined acceptable voltage limits.

### How to use op amps with a single rail power supply?

How to use op amps with a single rail power supply?
Method #1: Voltage divider using two resistors. Method #2: Voltage divider using two Zener diodes.

### Op Amp Voltage follower / Voltage Buffer

Op-amp voltage follower (op-amp voltage buffer). A buffer has an output that is exactly like the input. This feature is very useful for solving impedance matching problems.

### Operational Amplifier as Comparator

Operational Amplifier as Comparator (voltage comparator). Op-Amp can work as comparator when the differential gain in open loop is high and the speed is not a critical factor

### Non-inverting Operational Amplifier

How to find the voltage gain (formula) in a non-inverting Op. Amp. How to find the Input impedance (Zi) and output impedance (Zo) of a non-inverting operational amplifier.

### Inverting Summing Amplifier using Op Amp

The inverting summing amplifier using op amp outputs a voltage equal to the sum of the voltages it has in its inputs. The explanation is based on an adder of three inputs, but applies to an adder of any number of inputs