Capacitors in series – Capacitors in parallel.
How to obtain the equivalent capacitance of series capacitors and parallel capacitors? Formulas and examples
Window comparator using op amps
A window comparator using operational amplifiers lets you know if a signal (voltage level) is within or outside a previously defined acceptable voltage limit. Using a comparator or operational amplifier that controls the upper voltage level and another comparator that controls the lower voltage level, a window comparator can be implemented.