Water Level Controller Circuit
This simple Water level controller circuit is useful to control the water level in a tank. It does this by turning On and Off a water pump depending on the status of the sensors.
Determining the beta of a transistor (β) with a voltage-current converter and current-voltage converter.
The beta (β) is a characteristic of each transistor. This feature is found in the NTE, ECG manuals, etc. These manuals have a minimum or approximate values of the real values. This means that we do not know the real value of the transistor.
JFET Saturation and Breakdown regions The JFET Saturation region In this region the JFET has some linear features that are used in amplification. These features are similar to those of a BJT in the linear region. The JFET behaves as a voltage controlled (VGS) current source which ID is virtually independent of the voltage VDS. The equation that relates the current ID with the […]
FET characteristics The N-channel JFET consists of a silicon bar of N-type semiconductor with two P type regions on both sides. JFET is a tri-terminal device whose terminals are called drain, source and gate. The Outline of an n-channel JFET is described on picture (a), n-channel JFET symbol is shown on picture (b), p-channer JFET symbol is shown on […]
Transistorized Voltage Regulator Using a half and a full-wave rectifier we can convert an AC voltage in a DC one. This converted voltage is unregulated, because the output DC voltage does not remain constant. The output voltage of a power supply may vary due to changes in the load value. To reduce these variations we connect […]
Phototransistor equivalent circuit A phototransistor is essentially the same thing as a common transistor, which can work in two different ways: As a common transistor. Using the base current (IB) As a phototransistor. Using the light that illuminates this element and it acts as the base current. (IP). You can use both simultaneously, although it is mainly used with the base terminal that is […]
Darlington transistor The Darlington transistor is a special type of transistor which has a high current gain. It consists of two internally bipolar transistors being connected in cascade. The T1 transistor delivers on its emitter terminal, a current that goes to the base of the T2 transistor. The current gain equation of a typical transistor is: IE = ßxIB (collector current is […]
The Bipolar Transistor The bipolar transistor is an electronic device that originates a big evolution in the electronics field. The basic features of the bipolar transistor are introduced on this topic. We’ll study the basic models of these devices and their use in the analysis of circuits biasing. Biasing a bipolar transistor is necesary for many linear and non linear applications, because […]