Electricity and structure of matter

Electricity and structure of matter

The matter is divided into molecules, which in turn are divided into atoms. These atoms are composed of two parts: nucleus and periphery.
1- In the nucleus of the atom there are: Positive charged protons, Neutrons which as its name suggests, have no electric charge or are neutral.
2- On the periphery of the atom there are: Negatively charged electrons.

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Signal Generators

Introduction to Signal Generators The function of a signal generator is to produce time a dependent signal with some special characteristics of frequency, amplitude and shape. Sometimes these features are controlled externally throughout control signals.  The voltage-controlled oscillator or VCO is a clear example. To ensure that the signal generator acheives its function, some kind of feedback devices are used. These devices have features that […]

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Microwave Oven History

Microwave Oven History

Microwave Oven History The microwave oven was discovered in 1947  by Percy Spencer. Mr. Percy  Spencer, an engineer of the Raytheon Company, was carrying in his jacket pocket a bar of chocolate, which gave origin to one of the most used inventions in everyday life. How the microwave oven was discovered? Mr. Spencer conducted researches with […]

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Polarization of a conducting material

Polarization of a conducting material

Polarization of a conducting material Atoms consist of protons, electrons and neutrons They join each other to form structures of different substances according to the existing physical conditions, such as: temperature. If a metallic body in a vacuum is not subject to the influence of an electric field, its positive and negative charges are evenly distributed […]

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Electric Field Unit

Electric Field Unit

The Electric Field Unit The Electric Field Unit could be easily deduced from the following formula: The electric field is the quotient of an electrostatic force F and of an electric charge Q. It has the unit of Newton / Coulomb. To obtain the unit of electric field we can use other values, which can help us to make […]

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Electric Field

Electric Field

The Electric Field When a charge Q is affected by an electrostatic force, there is an electric field. The following formula shows the relation between them. From the formula, we can see that the unit is: Newton / coulomb (on the MKS system). Newton is the unit of force and  Coulomb is the unit of the electric […]

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Positive and Negative Charges

Positive and Negative Charges

Positive and Negative Charges All bodies around us are made up of electrons, protons and neutrons. In many cases, the number of protons and electrons is not the same (the body is not electrically balanced). If a body has more electrons than protons, it said that it is negatively charged and if it has more protons than electrons, then it is positively charged. […]

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Coulomb's Law

Coulomb’s Law

Coulomb’s Law The electrostatic force depends on the opposing electric charges and the distance that separates them. The value of this electrostatic force is given by Coulomb’s Law. where: F = electrostatic force that acts on each charge Q1 and Q2. K = a constant which depends on the unit system and the environment in which the charges are. r […]

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Voltage, Current and Power Gain on an Amplifier

Voltage, Current and Power Gain on an Amplifier Voltage Gain (Δv) The voltage gain is obtained by dividing the output by the input voltage. Δv = Vout / Vin. For example: If an amplifier has an input signal of 0.1 Vpp (peak-peak volts) and has an output signal of 10 Vpp, the voltage gain is: Δv = 10 Vpp / 0.1 Vpp […]

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Decibel - Power, Voltage and Current gains

Decibel – Power, Voltage and Current gains

Decibel The decibel expresses a ratio of quantities and not a quantity by itself. it does not express an exact quantity. The decibel expresses how many times more or how many times less, a quantity in relation to another quantity is. It is an expression that is not linear but logarithmic. It is a relative measurement unit. At audio frequencies […]

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