RC Low Pass Filter (passive Low Pass filter)

RC Low Pass Filter (passive Low Pass filter)

RC Low Pass Filter An RC low pass filter is a circuit made by a resistor and a capacitor connected in series, as shown in the image below. The RC low pass filter allows only the passage of frequencies below a particular frequency called cut-off frequency (Fc) and eliminates frequencies above this frequency. These RC […]

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Crystal Oscillators - Equivalente circuit

Crystal Oscillators – Equivalente circuit

The Crystal Oscillators A quartz crystal has a property called: piezoelectric effect. This effect causes, by applying a mechanical pressure on the surface of the crystal, that a voltage is developed on the opposite sides. In a similar manner, a voltage applied on the faces of the crystal produces a mechanical distortion on their surface. An AC voltage causes mechanical […]

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LC Oscillator - Inductance - Capacitance Oscillator

LC Oscillator – Inductance – Capacitance Oscillator

LC oscillator: Inductance – Capacitance Oscillator A simple oscillator can be built with an amplifier stage and an inductive-capacitive network (LC) to provide an offset of -180° The oscillation frequency can be freely adjusted or tuned on a range of frequencies from 100kHz to a few hundred MHz by changing only the value of C or L. These LC […]

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Phase Shift Oscillator

Phase Shift Oscillator

The Phase Shift Oscillator The phase shift oscillator, whose basic structure is described in the picture 1.a  has a a negative gain amplifier (-K) and a feedback network consisting of a third order RC section in cascade. The oscillation condition requires that the feedback network produce a phase shift of 180° to be consistent with the negative gain amplifier which […]

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